Thurgood Marshall was a giant of the Civil Rights Movement, and his great achievements number in the dozens. On the 20th anniversary of his death, we're remembering 20 key facts about his life.
1. Thurgood Marshall was born in Baltimore on July 2, 1908. His great grandfather had been born in Africa, in the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo, before he was brought to America as a slave.
2. Marshall’s given name was Thoroughgood, but in 2nd grade he shortened it because he didn't like having to spell it.
3. After graduating high school near the top of his class, Thurgood Marshall went to Lincoln University with plans to become a dentist.
4. He was twice suspended for hazing and pranking other students.
5. Students attending the university at the same time as Marshall included future luminaries like Langston Hughes, Cab Calloway and the future president of Ghana. (As far as we know, none of them fell victim to Marshall's antics, though Hughes would later describe young Marshall as "rough and ready, loud and wrong").
6. Marshall buckled down and got serious after meeting the woman who would become his wife, Vivian Burey, who was also a student at Lincoln. They were married while they were still in college.
7. Marshall would eventually graduate with honors, but not with a medical degree – instead he earned a BA in Literature and Philosophy.
8. The University of Maryland was his top choice for law school, but he didn't apply because of the school’s segregation policy. Instead, he studied law at Howard University where he graduated first in his class.
9. Marshall's first big civil rights victory as an attorney, Murray v. Pearson, was against the school he couldn’t attend, the University of Maryland. He successfully challenged their segregation policy, opening the door to equal education for generations of Maryland students.
10. The NAACP brought him on as legal counsel when he was still fresh out of law school. Within a few years, Marshall rose to become chief counsel for the organization.
11. He was just 32 years old when he won his first case before the U.S. Supreme Court, Chambers v. Florida, which established that confessions obtained as the result of police coercion didn't count as evidence.
12. At the helm of the NAACP's counsel, Marshall went on to argue many cases important to the Civil Rights Movement – most notably the landmark Brown v. Board of Education. Marshall led the legal team that argued the U.S. Supreme Court to a unanimous decision in favor of integration of schools.
13. After the death of his wife Vivian in 1955, Marshall married Cecilia Suyat. Together they had two sons, Thurgood Jr. and John.
14. President John F. Kennedy appointed him to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in 1961.
15. Marshall was friendly with J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, and encouraged collaboration between the NAACP and FBI.
16. In 1965, Marshall became the first black United States Solicitor General, winning 14 of the 19 cases he argued for the U.S.
17. Two years later, President Lyndon B. Johnson nominated Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court. He was the first black person to hold the position. Of the nomination, President Johnson said it was "the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man and the right place."
18. While he served on the Supreme Court, Marshall's law clerks included future Supreme Court justice Elena Kagan.
19. Marshall retired in 1991, and Clarence Thomas became the second black Supreme Court justice.
20. On January 24, 1993, Thurgood Marshall died of heart failure at the age of 84. A few months after his death, newly-inaugurated president Bill Clinton awarded Marshall the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor.
Written by Linnea Crowther