On April 3, 1939, Congress passed a bill to fund the training of African-American military pilots. These pilots, trained in Tuskegee, Alabama, became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. Before that time, racist policies in the segregated U.S. military had prevented African Americans from becoming pilots — in part because it would create new Black officers who would outrank white enlisted men. However, the outstanding record of the Tuskegee Airmen in combat during World War II proved there was no room for this kind of thinking in a modern war effort. In 1948, the military was racially integrated, and other institutions would follow. The Tuskegee Airmen fought for freedom in the skies of Europe and at home in the United States.